The pool in front of Confucius Temple is generally called “Panchi”. The palace of academy in the Lu State was situated by the Pan River. In the Zhou Dynasty, “Study of the emperor is featured by harmony while that of vassals is marked by the Pan”, which later became a custom.  Part of the Qinhuai River flowing by a square was renovated into a pool before Confucius Temple was built, hence making ConfuciusTemple in Nanjing the only one of its kind in China that has a pool with natural water.


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